FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol is a standard communication protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client on a computer network.
POP3 stands for Post Office Protocol and is a one-way client-server protocol in which email is received and held on the email server. The “3” refers to the third version of the original POP protocol.
SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol and is used to send and receive email.
Transport layer protocols (Layer 4 of OSI model) provide end-to-end communication services for applications. The transport layer provides convenient services such as connection-oriented data stream support, reliability, flow control, and multiplexing.
IP stands for Internet Protocol is the primary communication protocol used for relaying data across network boundaries. Functions include logical addressing and routing.
Virtual private network extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
Open Systems Interconnect (OSI), model was introduced by the International Standards Organization (ISO) to provide a conceptual model for networking. OSI model servers the purpose in which the end user need not worry about using devices, protocols or services from different manufacturers as it lays out the guidelines for interoperability between network manufacturers.
The International Organization for Standardization (known as the ISO for short) is a global organization that works to provide standardization across an array of products and companies. Its main goal is to facilitate trade, but its focus is on process improvement, safety, and quality in several areas.
IEEE stands Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and is an international non profit organization that set standards, IEEE 802 deals with LAN and WAN related technologies.
TDM stands for Time Division Multiplexing is a method in which multiple signals are combined and send over a single transmission media such as wires or radio waves. This is achieved by use of time sharing; multiple signals are transmitted for a defined amount of time in cycles. For example, a device sends and receives signals every alternate second.
FDM stands for Frequency Division Multiplexing is a method in which multiple signals are transmitted at different frequencies. Multiple signals can be sent at the same time over a single channel using this technique. For example, a device sends multiple signals at the same time using different frequencies similar to that of a radio (FM) or cable TV and the end device receives by tuning in to a particular channel.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode or ATM is a packet switching technology using fixed cell size of 53 bytes between end points over a virtual circuit. ATM uses asynchronous TDM and is designed to handle voice, data and video signals.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface or FDDI is a token ring based network using optical fiber. FDDI provides speed up to 100 Mbps and distance up to 200 kilometers. FDDI operates through two rings, one acting as a backup in case the primary one fails.
Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are standardized protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Optical Carrier transmission rates are a standardized set of specifications of transmission bandwidth for digital signals that can be carried on SONET.